They were unhappy with the 1974 nuclear test conducted by India but did not support further action because of the ensuing Cold War with the United States. She did not appoint any women to full cabinet rank during her terms in office. Relations with the US were strained badly under President Richard Nixon and his favouring of Pakistan during the Bangladesh liberation war. Nevertheless, Gandhi's close relations with reunified Vietnam and her decision to recognize the Vietnam-installed Government of Cambodia in 1980 meant that India and ASEAN were unable to develop a viable partnership. Indira Gandhi wurde am 19. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. Indira Gandhi: Early Life and Family Born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India, Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was the sole child of Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India, Indira Gandhi was The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. She often tried to organise women to involve themselves in politics. , On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on the grounds of electoral malpractice. , One of her legacies is supposed to be the systematic corruption of all parts of India's government from the executive to the judiciary due to her sense of insecurity.  However, this strategy backfired disastrously. , The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration. Indira Gandhi was born on 19 November 1917 in Allahbad, United Provinces, British India. Nevertheless, Gandhi authorised the development of a secret channel of contact and security assistance with Israel in the late 1960s. , Her first eleven years serving as Prime Minister saw Gandhi evolve from the perception of Congress party leaders as their puppet, to a strong leader with the iron resolve to split the party over her policy positions, or to go to war with Pakistan to liberate Bangladesh. His younger brother, Sanjay Gandhi, was a politician. , By the time of Sanjay's death, Gandhi trusted only family members, and therefore persuaded her reluctant son, Rajiv, to enter politics. Her charismatic personality and intelligence made her a powerful statesperson and extremely popular amongst the common people.  She gave evidence in her defence during the trial. In this article, you will get all the GK Questions on Indira Gandhi with several interesting facts. She was the mother of every Indian supremo", "Indira Gandhi – India's democrat with an authoritarian bent", "The darkest phase in Indira's tenure as PM – Emergency! Instead, Gandhi rallied a new faction of the party with her populist stance, and cemented her hold on power with a decisive parliamentary victory in 1971. She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. There are many things to learn about Indira Gandhi and her works. India maintained cordial relations with most of the members during Gandhi's time in power. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi 19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984) was an Indian stateswoman and central figure of the Indian National Congress. The nobility responded by rallying around the Jana Sangh and other right-wing parties that stood in opposition to Gandhi's attempts to abolish royal privileges. Die Nehru-Gandhi-Familie ist eine einflussreiche Politikerfamilie in Indien, ... Indira Gandhi gelangte nach den Wahlen 1980 wieder an die Macht und blieb bis zu ihrer Ermordung 1984 im Amt. , The first electoral test for Gandhi was the 1967 general elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.  In 2012, she was ranked number seven on Outlook India's poll of the Greatest Indian. ", In summarising the biographical works on Gandhi, Blema S. Steinberg concludes she was decidedly non-ideological. It was passed in the Lok Sabha but fell short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote.  Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending. Indira Gandhi was born to Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamla Nehru. Web.  Gandhi proceeded to abrogate the Janata Party government's Five-Year Plan in 1980 and launched the Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980–85). , Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. Early life Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was born in the northern Indian city of Allahabad on November 19, 1917. , In early 1971, disputed elections in Pakistan led then East Pakistan to declare independence as Bangladesh. Later he became India's first prime minister. In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first prime minister of India. That government had the distinction of being India's first-ever elected Communist Government.  The progressive Arab regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Algeria chose to remain neutral, while the conservative pro-American Arab monarchies in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates openly supported Pakistan.  In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. , During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. Suzuki of Japan was selected as the partner. , The unemployment rate remained constant at 9% over a nine-year period (1971–80) before declining to 8.3% in 1983. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the make of the weapons used and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The Janata alliance, with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship". She served as Prime minister from 1966-1977 and then again 1980 until her untimely demise in 1984. Establishment of close ties with the socialist and secular Baathist regimes to some extent neutralised Pakistani propaganda against India. " In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform.  In this election, Gandhi was elected by the voters of the Medak constituency.  Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected: Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi's selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father ... a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate.  Thus by 1947, she was already well immersed in politics, and by 1966, when she first assumed the position of prime minister, she had held several cabinet positions in her father's office. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there. Initially, her younger son Sanjay had been her chosen heir, but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, Gandhi persuaded her reluctant elder son Rajiv to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. The situation was normalised in the years following the war after Abdullah agreed to an accord with Gandhi, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in return for a special autonomous status for Kashmir. With her father among the leaders of the Indian independence movement, Gandhi weathered his absences when he was imprisoned.  Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. Indira Gandhi, The 'Son' The Family Never Had And The Daughter Who Broke The Caste Orthodoxy When Indira was born, Hutheesingh remembered the Scottish doctor who was attending to Kamla Nehru announced to Jawaharlal Nehru: “It is a bonny lassie, Sir!” By: Rasheed Kidwai Updated: 19 November 2020, 10:08 AM (IST) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru poses with his daughter Indira Gandhi, 25 … , She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942.  However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. Her Death Cause is Assassination. 3 Facts about Indira Gandhi.  The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s. The ambitious Union finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union home minister during the previous year had ordered the Gandhi's' arrests, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. Now they are out in the field.  India was victorious in the resulting Siachen conflict against Pakistan. Tony Blair was the leader of the British Labour Party from 1994 to 2007, and prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad, the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai. , The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rates. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr.  The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform. As the constitution requires that the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, the two houses of the Parliament of India, she was effectively removed from office. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said. Upon her father's death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.  Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. She knew him from Allahabad. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi. Children's Book Trust, page 95. New York: Malhotra, Inder. millions of acres of land were acquired and redistributed. I have to do a great deal of touring in order to set up the Congress Party Women's Section, and am on numerous important committees. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 hit her; 23 had passed through her body while seven remained inside her. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once." Harry S. Truman at the start of Nehru's visit to the United States in October 1949; Nehru's daughter, Indira, who later served as prime minister, is on the right.  As the world was quiet about this test, a vehement protest came from Pakistan as its prime minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, described the test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan.  After being arrested over this matter, Bhindranwale disassociated himself from the Congress Party and joined Akali Dal.  The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.. Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy; Norman, Dorothy. I shall continue to serve until my last breath and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it ... Even if I died in the service of the nation, I would be proud of it.  In 1971, Gandhi again motioned to abolish the privy purse. Her government targeted an average growth rate of 5.2% over the period of the plan. In 1967, Gandhi introduced a constitutional amendment that guaranteed the de facto use of both Hindi and English as official languages.  Her egalitarian upbringing with her cousins helped contribute to her sense of natural equality.  Gandhi, in turn, floated her own faction of the Congress party and managed to retain most of the Congress MPs on her side with only 65 on the side of the Congress (O) faction.  The 1974 India-Iranian agreement led to Iran supplying nearly 75 percent of India's crude oil demands. Indira Gandhi left behind her a lasting political legacy and her family became one of the most prominent political names in India. The party included right wing Hindu Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members.  Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program. " At another point, she went into more detail: "To a woman, motherhood is the highest fulfilment ... To bring a new being into this world, to see its perfection and to dream of its future greatness is the most moving of all experiences and fills one with wonder and exaltation. Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi from the Nehru–Gandhi Family have served as the Prime Minister of India. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. , In order to keep the Soviet Union and the United States out of South Asia, Gandhi was instrumental in establishing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1983, Gandhi remained a staunch supporter of the Palestinians in the Arab–Israeli conflict and was critical of the Middle East diplomacy sponsored by the United States. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. Benazir Bhutto became the first female prime minister of Pakistan in 1988. 12. The book “The Nehru Dynasty” (ISBN 10:8186092005) by K. N. Rao states that the second son of Indira (or Mrs. Feroze Khan) known as … She was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, an important figure in the nationalist movement, a movement devoted to the improvement of culture within the … In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed ... throughout the country. Feroze Gandhi, whom Indira married in the 1950s, was born in a Zoroastrian Parsi family as Feroze Ghandhy. Print. Indira Gandhi Family Photos: She was born to the house of Kashmiri Pandit of Allahabad to Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru and his beloved wife Kamala Nehru. Die Ehe hielt 62 Jahre. The lone child of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, Indira Gandhi ascended to the position after his death in the mid-1960s. Gandhi's Congress party was soundly crushed in the elections.  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